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what is an Integrated Circuit

6 Apr 2017
Integrated circuit ICs are the brain and heart in all mobile phone circuits. They are mostly black and silver in colors "chips" that you find on every phone circuit boards. if you want to do repairs on modern phones and tablets, IC is on every mobile phone you know, so that's why it's important to understand them. electronic components used to make IC are not visible from outside.

Inside the Phone IC

ICs are built in a semiconductor material chips and the parts on the IC cannot be removed. Thousands and millions of CMOS (complementary metal oxide semiconductor) and bipolar transistors FET are used in making of an IC. The fundamental concept of IC is to obtain lots of electronics components and the connections between them and reconstruct the whole thing in a microscopically tiny form on the surface of a piece of silicon wafers. The integrated circuit was independently designed by Jack Kilby at Texas Instruments in late 1958 and by Robert Noyce at Fairchild semiconductor camera and instrument in early 1959. To know what is integrated circuit design? and when the integrated circuit was developed in which technology generation? watch this video

Definition of IC

IC is an integration more than one or two electronic components - operational transistors, resistors and capacitors, diode building blocks, coil, and inductor etc. into to a small circuit chip and connected together to achieve a common goal or specific task.

Integrated Circuit IC of the smartphone is small in size and very light in weight. right now in this era, the goal of phone manufacturer companies is to Make an IC that can produce excellent results at low battery power. Now IC can be a function as a power amplifier, voltage clock oscillator, crystal clock oscillator timer, memory chip, or RF processor.

mobile phone integrated Circuits picture and detail descriptions
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Types of Integrated Circuit According to Technology
There are three types of technology
  • Linear IC 
  • Digital IC 
  • Mixed IC
if you don't know what is a smartphone circuit board read this blog post first

What is Linear IC/Analog integrated circuits 
It is also called analog integrated circuit. It works on an analog signal where the output signal varies according to the variable input signal. linear ICs have continuously variable signal output depends on the input signal implies. These vacuum tubes ICs are used as audio and radio frequency (RF) operational amplifiers. linear ICs is capable of performing filtering, amplification, demodulation, and modulation, so that's why they are used in both mobile phone and smartphone signal section in the circuit.

Digital IC 
works on the digital signal and operates on defined levels. These ICs are also used in laptops. The fundamental of digital ICs is logic gates work on binary data. binary data has two types of signal called low (logic 0) and high (logic 1). On the basis of electronic in smartphone components, various types of digital IC are used. Extruding terminals on digital IC connect to prints of a phone circuit. These are utmost importance to us because they're what will go on to connect to the rest of the electronic components and copper wires in a smartphone circuit.

Mixed Integrated Circuit Chips

The combination of analog and digital ICs on a single chip called Mixed ICs. the mixed-signal chip is an integrated circuit that has both analog circuits and digital circuits on a single semiconductor die. in applications, mixed-signal designs best example is a smartphone. the smart mobile phone is more accurate to call the mixed signal systems and able to process both analog and digital signals together. These ICs functions as convert Analog to Digital and Digital to Analog also know as clock/timing function which enabled multiple RF functions on a single chip.



In this blog post, we have discussed the integrated circuit including what is an integrated circuit? how ICs are made! what's Inside the Phone IC and types of Integrated Circuit according to Technology. We have dealt with the different types of integrated circuits like analog integrated circuit digital integrated circuit and Mixed Integrated Circuit with examples. Now types of the integrated circuit according to their shape in mobile phone PCB are explain.

ICs can be classified into different types based on different criteria in mobile phones, such as series IC and parallel IC based on the size and manufacturing process. the external shape of ICs can be classified as follows:

Types of ICs According to Their Shape in Mobile Phone Circuit
  • Single in-line package (SipIC)
  • Dual in-line package (DipIC)
  • Quad pin package IC
  • Micro Chip
  • Leadless Chip Carrier (LCC)
  • Pin Grid Array Package (PGA)
  • Ball Grid Array Package (BGA)
  • Crystal IC
Single in-line package (SipIC)
sip IC can contain hundreds of thousands of individual transistors on a single piece of material the size of a pea
example of single integrated circuit
SIP is a short form of Single in-line package. This IC package has one parallel rows of pins. black in color and rectangular in shape used in the early ages of mobile phone circuits.

DIP (Dual in-line packages)
DIP IC is a Plastic Dual Inline Package with a molded plastic body and CDIP Ceramic Dual Inline Package with a ceramic body
dip package dimensions
DIP is a short form of dual in-line package, that's a way the IC package has two parallel rows of pins and mostly in rectangular shape

Quad Pin Package IC
A QFP or Quad Flat Package is a surface-mounted integrated circuit with "gull wing"
QPP IC
There are many different abbreviations of Quard pin package IC. it is also called quad flat pack IC. This IC package has four parallel rows of pins. black in color and square in shape used in the early ages of mobile phone circuits. the pins are bent downwards on the printed circuit board.

Micro Chip

A microchip is manufactured from silicon material on a very small scale. you can watch the microchip electronic circuits large scale integration on this video. the video show you manufacturing and integrated circuit tester also

in the old age of the mobile phone circuit, this IC is used as a microprocessor

Leadless Chip Carrier (LCC)
LCC chip carrier of several kinds of surface-mount technology. square shape package with four edges Connections
ceramic leadless chip carrier
A leadless chip carrier (LCC or LLCC) is an integrated circuit that has no leads/pins when we view it from externally. in mobile phone PCB, it is also called filter IC. it makes use of metal pads at the inner edges to establish a connection with the Prints on the phone circuit board.

Pin Grid Array Package (PGA)
A pin grid array abbreviated of PGA. PGA has also developed another chip design called FC-PGA flip chip-pin grid array the package is in a square and rectangular shape
integrating package
Pin grid array is in a square and rectangular shape with pins arranged in a regular array. (PGA) used in the early ages of mobile phone PCB.

Ball Grid Array Package (BGA)
bga cpu Ball Grid Arrays packages are used with surface mount boards providing improved connectivity
 BGAs IC
Ball grid array (BGA) also called (SMT) in the electronic term and used for packaging many integrated circuits into one IC. BGA is made up of many overlapping layers that can contain one to a million multiplexers, flip-flops, logic gates, or other circuits. when we view it from externally we don't see its balls legs. view it form internally to see the unlimited Ball grid.

Crystal IC

Crystal IC is popular, as they are light in weight, adaptable to a wide range of applications and are considered ideal for running mobile applications operation internally on a smartphone circuit. below are common types of  EMI ESD and Crystal IC chips pictures used among various smartphone's circuit.
Below are common types of EMI ESD chips used in various mobile phones circuit
EMI ESD Filters
Integrated circuits are prevalent in so many forms across mobile phone electronics, it's hard to cover everything in one blog post. Here are a few of the more common ICs you might encounter in mobile phone electronics.

DSP (Digital Signal Processor), DRAM (Dynamic Random Access Memory), ROM (Read Only Memory), PROM (Programmable Read Only Memory) Memory Chips, Power Management ICs, microcontrollers, microprocessors, and Sensors. all main functions in the smartphone are control by Touch Controller, USB Charging Port Controller, Power Management, Application Processor, baseband processor, and Nand ICs.

Mobile Phone Hardware Repairing ( about faults comes with IC )


We can divide all Mobile phone damages into Hardware, Software and Settings faults. when we think about hardware damages or faults mainly we want to know what are the smartphone main ICs and faults comes with IC. Old phones had ICs more than the latest phones. However when you get complete idea about that ICs then you will be able to find the solution for damages in your phone properly. Check the following list of ICs and try to understand about those faults.

Power Amp

Antenna Switch

RF Processor (Hagar)

Power IC

CPU

Charging IC

Flash ( ROM or EEPROM)

Oscillator (VCO)

SIM IC

Key Pad

Antenna Switch IC


Antenna switch helps to filter frequency Bands
Some Frequency band are not worked properly
The phone will heat Antenna Switch, Antenna switch helps to filter frequency Bands as 900Mhz, 1800Mhz and connect Rx, Tx( Receiver and Transmitter). Therefore when damage this IC we can see faults as following.

Signal Drop

No Network found

Some Frequency band are not worked properly RF Processor ( Hagar IC)

LCD Light Control IC
LCD Light Control IC
ic position

LCD Light control IC Power Amp This is a very important IC for Transmitting signal (Tx) in your phone. This IC is work as a Tx amplifier and it gets high voltage directly from the battery. When it is damaged we can see the following faults.

Signal Drop

No Network or Access

Battery low quickly

Can't make a call ( Tx does not work properly )

Power on failure
The next part of this article will be published very soon. Keep visiting my blog for the next post.
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